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优秀的ModSecurity开源WAF

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优秀的ModSecurity开源WAF

ModSecurity是一个开源的跨平台Web应用程序防火墙(WAF)引擎,用于ApacheIISNginx,由TrustwaveSpiderLabs开发。作为WAF产品,ModSecurity专门关注HTTP流量,当发出HTTP请求时,ModSecurity检查请求的所有部分,如果请求是恶意的,它会被阻止和记录。

优势

1.完美兼容nginx,是nginx官方推荐的WAF;
2.支持OWASP规则;
3.ModSecurity 3.0版本比老版本更新更快,更加稳定,并且得到了nginxIncTrustwave等团队的积极支持;
4.免费;

功能

1.SQL Injection (SQLi):阻止SQL注入;
2.Cross Site Scripting (XSS):阻止跨站脚本攻击;
3.Local File Inclusion (LFI):阻止利用本地文件包含漏洞进行攻击;
4.Remote File Inclusione(RFI):阻止利用远程文件包含漏洞进行攻击;
5.Remote Code Execution (RCE):阻止利用远程命令执行漏洞进行攻击;
6.PHP Code Injectiod:阻止PHP代码注入;
7.HTTP Protocol Violations:阻止违反HTTP协议的恶意访问;
8.HTTPoxy:阻止利用远程代理感染漏洞进行攻击;
9.Shellshock:阻止利用Shellshock漏洞进行攻击;
10.Session Fixation:阻止利用Session会话ID不变的漏洞进行攻击;;
11.Scanner Detection:阻止黑客扫描网站;
12.Metadata/Error Leakages:阻止源代码/错误信息泄露;
13.Project Honey Pot Blacklist:蜜罐项目黑名单;
14.GeoIP Country Blocking:根据判断IP地址归属地来进行IP阻断;

劣势

1.不支持检查响应体的规则,如果配置中包含这些规则,则会被忽略,nginx的的sub_filter指令可以用来检查状语从句:重写响应数据,OWASP中相关规则是95X;
2.不支持OWASP核心规则集DDoS规则REQUEST-912-DOS-PROTECTION.conf,nginx本身支持配置DDoS限制;
3.不支持在审计日志中包含请求和响应主体;

测试环境:centOS 7.6
升级软件和内核:

yum update

安装nginxhttp://nginx.org/en/linux_packages.html#mainline

yum install yum-utils

vim /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo

[nginx-stable]

name=nginx stable repo

baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

gpgcheck=1

enabled=1

gpgkey=https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key

[nginx-mainline]

name=nginx mainline repo

baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/mainline/centos/$releasever/$basearch/

gpgcheck=1

enabled=0

gpgkey=https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key

yum install nginx

yum install epel-release

yum install gcc-c++ flex bison yajl yajl-devel curl-devel curl GeoIP-devel doxygen zlib-devel pcre pcre-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel autoconf automake lmdb-devel ssdeep-devel ssdeep-libs lua-devel libmaxminddb-devel git apt-utils autoconf automake build-essential git libcurl4-openssl-dev libgeoip-dev liblmdb-dev ibpcre++-dev libtool libxml2-dev libyajl-dev pkgconf wget zlib1g-dev

报错解决:Error: Cannot retrieve metalink for repository: epel. Please verify its path and try again
解决办法:/etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo,文件第3行注释去掉,把第四行注释掉,修改为

[epel]
name=Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 – $basearch
baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/$basearch
#mirrorlist=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=epel-6&arch=$basearch

克隆GitHub存储库:

git clone --depth 1 -b v3/master --single-branch https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity

编译源代码:

$ cd ModSecurity

$ git submodule init

$ git submodule update

$ ./build.sh

$ ./configure

$ make

$ make install

注意:安装中有报错fatal: No names found, cannot describe anything.是正常现象,下载用于ModSecurityNGINX连接器:

git clone --depth 1 https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity-nginx.git

确定哪个版本的NGINX是运行在主机上的ModSecurity模块将加载:

nginx -v
nginx version: nginx/1.17.3

下载与安装版本对应的源代码:

wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.17.3.tar.gz
tar zxvf nginx-1.17.3.tar.gz

编译动态模块,复制到模块标准目录:

cd nginx-1.17.3

#./configure --with-compat --add-dynamic-module=../ModSecurity-nginx

$ make modules

cp objs/ngx_http_modsecurity_module.so /etc/nginx/modules/

将以下load_module指令添加到/etc/nginx/nginx.conf的main中:

load_module modules/ngx_http_modsecurity_module.so;

确定nginx模块加载成功:

nginx -t

ModSecurity 3简单示例
创建Demo web应用vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

server {

listen 8085;

location / {

    default_type text/plain;

    return 200 "Thank you for requesting ${request_uri}\n";

    }

}

重新加载nginx:

nginx -s reload

确认nginx正常工作:

curl -D – http://localhost

保护Demo web应用
创建/etc/nginx/modsec文件夹:

mkdir /etc/nginx/modsec

下载推荐的ModSecurity配置文件

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity/v3/master/modsecurity.conf-recommended
mv modsecurity.conf-recommended modsecurity.conf

vim modsecurity.conf #在些文件中编辑以下配置

SecRuleEngine DetectionOnly
SecRuleEngine On

创建ModSecurity的主配置文件

vim /etc/nginx/modsec/main.conf

Include the recommended configuration

Include /etc/nginx/modsec/modsecurity.conf

A test rule

SecRule ARGS:testparam "@contains test" "id:1234,deny,log,status:403"

报错解决:[emerg] “modsecurity_rules_file” directive Rules error.

vim /etc/nginx/modsec/modsecurity.conf

#SecUnicodeMapFile unicode.mapping 20127

配置nginx反向代理,

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/proxy.conf

#include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf; #把这一行注释掉,不然80端口会有冲突。

server {

    listen 80;

    modsecurity on;

    modsecurity_rules_file /etc/nginx/modsec/main.conf;

    location / {

    proxy_pass [http://0.0.0.0:8085;](http://0.0.0.0:8085/)

    proxy_set_header Host $host;

    }
nginx -s reload    #重新加载nginx

curl -D - http://localhost/foo?testparam=123    #能正常返回“Thank you for requesting /foo?testparam=123”

curl -D - http://localhost/foo?testparam=test    #则返回"403 Forbidden",说明前面配置的那条modsecuriy规则生效了,并阻拦了testparam参数中带test的请求

/var/log/nginx/error.log中可以看到拦截的详细日志部署OWASP规则–CRS(Core Rule Set)安装运行nikto漏洞扫描工具,用于测试CRS的防御效果。

git clone https://github.com/sullo/nikto    #下载nikto
cd nikto 
perl program/nikto.pl -h localhost    #用nikto扫描nginx搭建的web系统(反向代理)
扫描结果是+ 7687 requests: 0 error(s) and 308 item(s) reported on remote host    #扫描出308个问题

启用OWASP CRS

cd /etc/nginx/modsec/
wget https://github.com/SpiderLabs/owasp-modsecurity-crs/archive/v3.0.2.tar.gz    #下载OWASP CRS
cd owasp-modsecurity-crs-3.0.2/
cp crs-setup.conf.example crs-setup.conf

modsecurity主配置文件中include CRS的配置和规则

vim /etc/nginx/modsec/main.conf

Include the recommended configuration

Include /etc/nginx/modsec/modsecurity.conf

OWASP CRS v3 rules

Include /usr/local/owasp-modsecurity-crs-3.0.2/crs-setup.conf
Include /usr/local/owasp-modsecurity-crs-3.0.2/rules/*.conf

测试CRS

nginx -s reload    #重新加载nginx配置

curl http://localhost    #返回Thank you for requesting /

curl -H "User-Agent: Nikto" http://localhost    #返回403 Forbidden,说明WAF防护已经生效,此处匹配的规则是user-agent中不能包含漏洞扫描器名字

perl nikto/program/nikto.pl -h localhost    #再次用nikto扫描nginx搭建的web系统

扫描结果是+ 7687 requests: 0 error(s) and 83 item(s) reported on remote host    #扫描出83个问题,比308个少了很多

在安装ModSecurity时,我们将演示应用程序配置为为每个请求返回状态代码200,但实际上并没有返回这些文件,Nikto将这200个状态码解释为它请求的文件确实存在,所以报告出83个问题,为了优化nikto,去除误报,我们做如下配置

cp nikto/program/nikto.conf.default nikto/program/nikto.conf</pre<code>>vim nikto/program/nikto.conf</code> #在第<code>76</code>行最后加上;<code>-sitefiles</code>,如下所示<pre class="prettyprint linenums" >@@[email protected]@ALL;[email protected]@EXTRAS;tests(report:500);-sitefiles

之后再次用nikto扫描

perl program/nikto.pl -h localhost

扫描结果是+ 7583 requests: 0 error(s) and 7 item(s) reported on remote host
可以看出问题只有7个问题,由于ModSecurity不支持响应(response)的检查,所以涉及此类的漏洞无法防御。但总体还是抵御了绝大部分的nikto的漏洞扫描。

https://www.nginx.com/resources/library/modsecurity-3-nginx-quick-start-guide/
https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity
https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ModSecurity/tree/v3/master

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